×

Legal Disclaimer - I am not lawyer. I do not pretend to be a lawyer. This is just some copy paste research. The information presented herein is for informative purposes only. Information, Not Legal Advice. Sometimes the laws change. We cannot promise that this information is always up-to-date and correct.

We do not intend this information to be legal advice. By providing this information, we are not acting as your lawyer.

Composting Toilet Regulations

Basic summary composting toilet in your RV is legal. Most states regulate composting toilets in residential installations. Some have no regulations at all. Most state disposal in a safe legal manner. That would fall back to EPA, which means, waste processing such as a landfill.

Alabama:

Alabama Department of Public Health, Division of Community Environmental Protection, RSA Tower, Suite 1250, PO Box 303017, Montgomery, AL 36130-3017; Ph. (334) 206-5373; Contact: John Paul O’Driscoll.

REGULATION(S):

Composting Toilets: As of December 23, 1998, no regulations exist for composting toilets.

Alaska:

Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Domestic Wastewater Program, 410 West Willoughby Avenue, Suite 105, Juneau, AK 99801; Ph. (907) 465-5324; Fax (907) 465-5362; http://www.state.ak.us/dec.

REGULATION(S): 18 AAC 72 Wastewater Disposal (1 April 1999).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Arizona:

Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 3033 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85012-2809; Toll-free Ph. (800) 234-5677; Ph. (602) 207-4335; Fax (602) 207-4872; Contact: Nail Agouti at (602) 207-4723; http://www.sosaz.com/public_services/Title_18/18-09.htm

REGULATION(S):

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No regulations. Bulletin 12 suggests the use of composting toilets where conditions are such as to make it impossible or impractical to construct either a septic tank disposal or an earth-pit privy.5 Provided they can be maintained and operated without endangering the public health or creating a nuisance, composting toilets may be permitted.

Arkansas:

Arkansas Department of Health, Sanitary Division, State Health Building, 4815 West Markham, Little Rock, AR 72201; Ph. (501) 661-2171.

REGULATION(S):

COMPOSTING TOILETS: are allowed as long as they are NSF approved. In fact, composting toilets are currently being used in state park systems.14 A composting toilet is defined as a device specifically designed to retain and process body waste, and, in some cases, household garbage, by biological degradation. The process may be thermophilic or mesophilic, depending on the design of the toilet.15 Some manufacturers claim the stabilized compost is safe and may be used as a soil additive in gardens. The actual health risks associated with this composted material have not been adequately assessed. The stabilized compost from a composting toilet must be buried onsite or deposited in an approved sanitary landfill.

California:

California Department of Water Resources, Water Conservation Office, 1020 9th Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Ph. (916) 327-1655; Contact: Ed Craddock. For Composting Toilets and Constructed Wetlands Regulations, Contact: California Department of Health Services, 724 P Street, Room 1350, Sacramento, CA 95814; Ph. (916) 654 0584; Fax (916) 657-2996.

REGULATION(S):

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations, check with your local or county agency.

Colorado:

Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Water Quality Control Division, 4300 Cherry Creek Drive South, Denver, CO 80246-1530; Ph. (303) 692-3500. REGULATION(S): Guidelines on Individual Sewage Disposal Systems, Chapter 25, Article 10 (1994).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Composting toilets, according to the Colorado Department of Health, are defined as unit(s) which consist of a toilet seat and cover over a riser which connects to a compartment or a vault that contains or will receive composting materials sufficient to reduce waste by aerobic decomposition.21 Composting toilets receive deposits of feces, urine, and readily decomposable household garbage that are not diluted with water or other fluids.22 These deposits are retained in a compartment in which aerobic composting will occur. The compartment may be located within a dwelling or building, provided that the unit complies with the applicable requirements of these guidelines and provided the installation will not result in conditions considered to be a health hazard as determined by the local health department. The effective volume of the receptacle must be sufficient to accommodate the number of persons served. When the receptacle is filled to 75% capacity, residue from the unit shall be disposed of by acceptable solid waste practices. Composting toilets must be NSF approved.

Connecticut:

Connecticut Department of Public Health, 410 Capitol Avenue, MS #51 SEW, PO Box 340308, Hartford, CT 06134-0308; Ph. (860) 509-7296; http://www.dep.state.ct.us/dph.

REGULATION(S):

COMPOSTING TOILETS:(b)(1) The local director of health may approve the use of a large capacity composting toilet or a heat-assisted composting toilet for replacing an existing privy or a failing subsurface sewage disposal system, or for any single-family residential building where application is made by the owner and occupant, and the lot on which the building will be located is tested by the local director of health and found suitable for a subsurface sewage disposal system meeting all the requirements of Section 19-13-B103d of these regulations. (2) All wastes removed from composting toilets shall be disposed of by burial or other methods approved by the local director of health.28 19-13-B103f XI.

Delaware:

Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Division of Water Resources, 89 Kings Highway, Dover, DE 19901; Ph. (302) 739-4761. REGULATION(S): Regulations Governing the Design, Installation and Operation of On-Site Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (4 January 1984).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Florida:

Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Water and On-Site Sewage Programs, 2020 Capital Circle SE, BIN #A08, Tallahassee, FL 32399-1713; Ph. (850) 488-4070; FAX (850) 922-6969; http://www.doh.state.fl.us; http://www.dep.state.fl.us/legal/Rules/rulelistpro.htm#ww; Contact: Sharon Sawicki; (850) 245-8605

REGULATION(S): 381.0065 Florida Statutes Regulations: Chapter 64E-6, Florida Administrative Code, Standards for Onsite Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems (3 March 1998).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Although they are not widely used, they are allowed, especially in floodpxone areas. Florida encourages the use of composting toilets.33 64E-6.009

Georgia:

Department of Human Resources, Division of Public Health, Environmental Health Section, 5th Floor-Annex, 2 Peachtree Street NW, Atlanta, GA 30303-3186; Ph. (404) 657-2700 or 6538; FAX (404) 657-6533; http://www.ganet.org/dnr/environ/rules_files/rules.htm; Contact: Warren Abrahams, Program Consultant.

REGULATION(S): Rules of Department of Human Resources, Public Health, Chapter 290-5-26: Onsite Sewage Disposal Management Systems (20 February 1998).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Where the availability of land for installation of conventional septic tank systems is limited so as to allow for only a septic tank and a reduced size absorption system, composting toilets may be considered. Laundry, bath, and kitchen wastes must be disposed of in a conventional septic tank system, although the size of the absorption field may be reduced by 35% from that of a conventional system, provided water conservation devices are utilized. Composted wastes from the treatment unit shall be removed as per the manufacturer’s recommendations and the residue shall be buried by covering with at least six inches of soil. Wastes should not be used as fertilizer for root or leaf crops which may be eaten raw. Composting toilets must be certified by the NSF as meeting the current standard or certified by the manufacturer as meeting a nationally recognized standard for such purpose.41

Hawaii:

Department Of Health, Wastewater Branch, Environmental Management Division, 919 Ala Moana Boulevard, Suite 309, Honolulu, HI 96814; Ph. (808) 586-4294.

REGULATION(S): Hawaii Administrative Rules, Chapter 11-62 (30 August 1991).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: 11-62-03 Definitions. “Compost toilet” means a non-flush, waterless toilet that employs an aerobic composting process to treat toilet wastes.45 Ch. 11-62-35 states that specific design requirements for composting (and other) toilets shall be reviewed and approved by the director on a case-by-case basis.46 Products, if sold in Hawaii, are to be approved by the director, based on appropriate testing procedures and standards as set forth by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Testing Laboratory.47 The following toilets are approved the NSF Standard 041: Biolet XL; Clivus Multrum Model M-1, M-2, M-12, M-15, M-18, M-22, M-25, M-28, M-32, M-35, M54ADA; Scotch Carousel; and Sun Mar Excel.

Idaho:

Division of Environmental Quality, 1410 North Hilton, Boise, ID 83706-1255; Ph. (208) 373-0502. Contact: Barry Burnell, Watershed Protection Supervisor.

REGULATION(S):

COMPOSTING TOILETS: are defined as toilets within the dwelling that store and treat non-water carried human urine and feces and small amounts of household garbage by bacterial decomposition. The resultant product is compost. Composting toilets are allowed in residences that also have water under pressure, with the understanding that a public sewer or another acceptable method of on-site disposal is available. Permission must be obtained from the Idaho Health Department, as current plumbing code prohibits the use of composting toilets without their permission.

Illinois:

Illinois Department of Public Health, Division of Environmental Health, 525-535 West Jefferson Street, Springfield, IL 62761-0001; Ph. (217) 782-5830; Contact: Elaine Beard or Doug Ebelherr.

REGULATION(S): Title 77: Public Health, Chapter I: Department of Public Health, Subchapter r: Water and Sewage, Part 905: Private Sewage Disposal Code, Section 905.30, Approved Private Sewage Disposal Systems (15 March 1996).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: are approved for private sewage disposal of human wastes.59 Compost toilets shall be designed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation to serve the anticipated number of persons. The owner of a compost toilet shall maintain the toilet and dispose of the contents in accordance with Section 905.170, which lists several methods of disposal: 1) discharge to a municipal sanitary sewer system; 2) discharge to sludge lagoons or sludge drying beds; 3) discharge to an incinerator device; or 4) discharge to a sanitary landfill.60 Compost toilets shall comply with the requirement of the NSF Standard 41 and shall bear the NSF Seal.61

Indiana:

Indiana Department of Environmental Management, 100 North Senate Avenue, PO Box 6015, Indianapolis, IN 46206-6015; Ph. (317) 233-7179 or (317) 233-7188; Contact: Alan Dunn or Tim Decker; Email: [email protected]

REGULATION(S): Regulations, if they existed, would most likely be found under 401 Indiana Administrative Code 6-8.1.

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Iowa:

Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Wallace State Office Building, 502 East 9th Street, Des Moines, IA 50319-0034; Ph. (515) 281-7814; Contact: Brent Parker.

REGULATION(S): Chapter 69: On-Site Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems 567-69.11(455B).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Kansas:

Department of Health and Environment, Bureau of Water, Nonpoint Source Section, Forbes Field, Building 283, Topeka, KS 66620; Ph. (785) 296-4195 or 1683.

REGULATION(S): No existing regulations. If regulations existed, they should fall under the Kansas Administrative Regulations (KAR) Chapter 25, Article 5, Sewage and Excreta Disposal.

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Kentucky:

Department for Public Health, Division of Public Health Protection and Safety, Environmental Management Branch, Community Environment Section, 275 East Main Street, Frankfort, KY 40621; Ph. (502) 564-4856; FAX (502) 564-6533; Contact: Craig Sheehan, R.S., Health Inspection Program Evaluator; Email: [email protected] REGULATION(S): 902 Kentucky Administrative Regulations 10:085 Kentucky Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems (September 1989).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: are mentioned under 1b, 8. System Sizing Standards. When approved permanent non-water carriage water closet type devices (composting toilets, incinerator toilets, oil carriage toilets, etc.) are installed exclusively in any residence and no other blackwater type wastes are created, the daily design flow unit for that specific residence may be reduced.

Louisiana:

Department of Health and Hospitals, Office of Public Health, Sanitation Services, 106 Canal Blvd., Thibodaux, LA 70301; Ph. (504) 449 5007; Contact: Teda Boudreaux.

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Maine:

Department of Human Services, Bureau of Health, Division of Health Engineering, Wastewater and Plumbing Control Program, State House Station 10, Augusta, ME 04333-0010; Ph. (207) 287-5689.

REGULATION(S): Maine Subsurface Waste Water Disposal Rules 144A CMR 241(20 January 1998).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: are regulated in Ch. 15, Section 1504.0. A composting toilet is designed to receive, store, and compost human wastes. Stabilized (that is, composted) wastes shall be removed for disposal when the toilet’s capacity is reached. The minimum interior volume of a composting toilet shall be large enough to allow complete stabilization of all wastes when the toilet is used continuously at its proposed usage level. Toilet wastes shall be deposited into a receiving area with a self-closing, tightly fitting lid. There shall be a separate access, with a tightly fitting lid, through which food wastes, or other materials needed for the composting process, are routed to the composting compartment. Composted material shall be removed from the storage area through a cleanup opening fitted with a tight door or lid. Non cleanup may be located in a food storage or preparation area. Any liquid overflow shall be discharged to a primitive or conventional disposal field. The contents of an alternative toilet shall be removed and disposed of in a legal and sanitary manner whenever they reach recommended capacity of the alternative toilet.

Maryland:

Maryland Department of the Environment, Water Management Administration, 2500 Broening Highway, Baltimore, MD 21224; Ph. (410) 631-3778.

REGULATION(S): Regulations may be discussed under Chapter 9, Subtitle 14A. Waterless Toilets (1993).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Waterless toilets are covered in Chapter 9, Subtitle 14A-01. Waterless Toilets The Maryland Department of the Environment does not prohibit the use of any NSF approved composting toilet for use anywhere in the State. The Department’s current regulation is to allow a 36% design flow reduction for residences when utilizing an NSF approved composting/waterless toilet.

Massachusetts:

Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Pollution Control, One Winter Street, 8th Floor, Boston, MA 02108; Ph. (617) 292-5500; http://www.magnet.state.ma.us/dep/brp/wwm/wwmhome.htm; Contact: Doug Roth; Email: [email protected] For gray water, contact: Ruth Alfas, gray water piloting coordinator; Email: [email protected]

REGULATION(S): 310 CMR 15.000, Title 5: Innovative and Alternative Subsurface Sewage Disposal Technologies Approved for Use in Massachusetts (4 March 1998).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: are certified for general use for new construction and for remedial use. Specific regulations concerning composting toilets follow: 1) compost temperature must be maintained above 131 degrees F (55 degrees C); 2) moisture must be maintained between 40-60% for best results; and 3) the system must be designed to store compostable and composted solids for at least two years, either inside the composting chamber or in a separate compost container. Compost must be disposed by one of two methods: 1) by on-site burial, covered with a minimum of six inches of clean compacted earth; or 2) by a licensed seepage hauler. If any liquid by-product exists, it should be discharged through a gray water system that includes a septic tank and leaching system or removed by licensed septic hauler.

Michigan:

Department of Environmental Quality, Environmental Health Section, Drinking Water and Radiological Protection Division, PO Box 30630, Lansing, MI 48909-8130; Toll-free Ph. (800) 662-9278; Ph. (517) 335-8284.

REGULATION(S): Michigan has one of the oldest existing guidelines for composting toilets and gray water systems. However, as there is no statewide sanitary code, the 46 local health departments define the criteria for onsite sewage disposal and “each county runs its own show.”79 The Michigan Department of Health publishes Guidelines for Acceptable Innovative or Alternative Waste Treatment Systems and Acceptable Alternative Graywater Systems under authority of Act 421, P.A. 1981 (1986). Under Act 421, an owner of a structure using an acceptable an innovative or alternative waste treatment system (hereafter referred to as “alternative systems”) in combination with an acceptable alternative gray water system (hereafter referred to as “gray water systems”) shall not be required to connect to an available public sanitary sewer system.80 Alternative system means a decentralized or individual waste system which has been approved for use by a local health department and which is properly operated and maintained so as to not cause a health hazard or nuisance. An acceptable alternative system may include, but is not limited to, an organic waste treatment system or composting toilet which operates on the principle of decomposition of heterogenous organic materials by aerobic and facultative anaerobic organisms and utilizes an effectively aerobic composting process which produces a stabilized humus. Alternative systems do not include septic tank-djainfield systems or any other systems which are determined by the department to pose a similar threat to the public health, safety and welfare, and the quality of surface and subsurface waters of this state.81 A person may install and use in a structure an alternative system or an alternative system in combination with an gray water system. The installation and use of an alternative system or an alternative system in combination with a gray water system in a structure shall be subject to regulations by the local health department in accordance with the ordinances and regulations of the local units of government in which the structure lies. A local health department may inspect each alternative system within its jurisdiction at least once each year to determine if it being properly operated and maintained. 1) A local health department may charge the owner of an alternative system a reasonable fee for such an inspection and for the plan review and installation inspection. 2) The department shall maintain a record of approved alternative systems and their maintenance and adoption. The department, after consultation with the state plumbing board, shall adopt guidelines to assist local health departments in determining what are gray water systems and what are alternative systems. The department shall advise local health departments regarding the appropriate installation and use of alternative systems and alternative systems in combination with gray water systems. 3) A person who installs and uses an alternative system or an alternative system in combination with a gray water system shall not be exempt from any special assessments levied by a local unit of government for the purpose of financing the construction of an available public sanitary sewer system. 4) An owner of a structure using an alternative in combination with a gray water system shall not be required to connect to an available public sanitary sewer system.

Minnesota:

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Water Quality Division, Nonpoint Source Compliance Section, 520 Lafayette Road, St. Paul, MN 55155-4194; Ph. (612) 296-7574; http://www.revisor.leg.state.mn.us/arule/7080

REGULATION(S): Chapter 7080.9010, Alternative and Experimental Systems [Repealed as of 02/28/00!]

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No regulations,91 except in Subpart 3G which mentions that other toilet waste treatment devices may be used where reasonable assurance of performance is provided.

Mississippi:

Mississippi State Department of Health, PO Box 1700, Jackson, MS 39215-1700; Ph. (601) 576-7689; Contact: Ralph Turbo.

REGULATION(S): Mississippi Individual On-Site Wastewater Disposal System Law, Chapter 41-67 (1996).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: 2.3 (28) Non-Waterborne Disposal System - any non-water carried system that treats and/or disposes of human excreta.94 Non-Waterborne Wastewater Systems are covered under MSDH 300-Section 02A-XIII-01 (revised February 17, 1997). 1. In remote areas of the State or certain transient or temporary locations, the use of non-waterborne systems such as sanitary pit privies, portable toilets, incinerating toilets, composting toilets and related sewage systems may be approved. Due to their limited capacities, these systems are restricted to receive excreta only. Since such systems require regular service and maintenance to prevent their malfunction and overflow, they shall only be used where the local health department approves such use.

Missouri:

Missouri Department of Health, Bureau of Community Environmental Health, PO Box 570, Jefferson City, MO 65102-0570; Ph. (573) 751-6095; FAX (573) 526-6946 or 751-0247.

REGULATION(S): Missouri Laws for On-Site Disposal Systems, Chapter 701, Section 701.025 (28 August 1998).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Montana:

Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Lee Metcalfe Building, 1520 E. Sixth Avenue, PO Box 200901, Helena, MT 59620-0901; Ph. (406) 444-4633; FAX (406) 444-1374; Contact: Mark M. Peterson, P.E., Environmental Engineering Specialist, Permitting and Compliance Division; Email: [email protected] REGULATION(S): Circular WQB 5. Minimum Design Standards for On-Site Alternative Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems (1992).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Under Chapter 70.1, waste segregation systems consist of dry disposal for human waste such as various chemical and incinerator type systems with separate disposal for gray water. However, regardless of the type of dry disposal system used, the gray water must be disposed of by primary (septic tank) and secondary (subsurface djainfield) treatment.101 Waste segregation systems will only be considered for recreational type dwellings which receive seasonal use or commercial buildings.

Nebraska:

Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality, Ground Water Section, PO Box 98922, Lincoln, NE 68509-8922; Ph. (402) 471-2580 or (505) 827-7541; http://www.deq.state.ne.us/RuleAndR.nsf/390ed3941b29c12f8625682c006210e9/80857228ae0f5c2786256800005153a8?OpenDocument; Contact: Brian Sohall.

REGULATION(S): If they existed, regulations would probably be found in Title 124, Rules and Regulations for Design, Operation and Maintenance of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems.

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Nevada:

Department of Human Resources, Health Division, Bureau of Health Protection Services, 1179 Fairview Drive, Suite 101, Carson City, NV 89701-5405; Ph. (702) 687-6615 (general number); Ph. (702) 687-4750 (direct line); Contact: Joe Pollack.

REGULATION(S): R129-98. Sewage disposal is regulated under Nevada Administrative Code 444.750 (February 1998).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Not approved.

New Hampshire:

Department of Environmental Services, Bureau of Wastewater Treatment, 6 Hazen Drive, Concord, NH 03301; Ph. (603) 271-3711 or 3503; http://www.state.nh.us/gencourt/ols/rules/env-ws.html

REGULATION(S): Chapter Env-Ws 1000 Subdivision and Individual Sewage Disposal System Design Rules. Env-Ws 1022 deals with Alternate Systems.

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

New Jersey:

Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Nonpoint Pollution Control, PO Box 029, Trenton, NJ 08625-0029; Ph. (609) 292-0404 or 4543; http://www.state.nj.us/dep/dwq/rules.htm

REGULATION(S): New .Jersey Administrative Code 7:9A Standards for Individual Subsurface Sewage Disposal Systems.

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

New Mexico:

State of New Mexico Environment Department, 524 Camino De Los Marquez, Suite 4, Santa Fe, NM 87505; Ph. (505) 827-7545 or 7541 (direct number); FAX (505) 827-7545; Contact: R. Brian Schall, Water Resource Specialist/Community Services.

REGULATION(S): 20 NMAC 7.3, Liquid Waste Disposal Regulations (10 October 1997).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Composting toilets are allowed, although there is no mention of them in the regulations.

New York:

New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Community Sanitation and Food Protection, 2 University Place, Room 404, Albany, NY 12203-3399; Ph. (518) 458-6706; Contact: Ben Pierson.

REGULATION(S): Appendix 75-A, Wastewater Treatment Standards - Individual Household Systems, Statutory Authority: Public Health Law 201(1)(1) (1 December 1990).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: 75-A. 10 Other Systems. (b) Non-Waterborne Systems. (1) In certain areas of the State where running water is not available or is too scarce to economically support flush toilets, or where there is a need or desire to conserve water, the installation of non-waterborne sewage systems may be considered, however, the treatment of wastewater from sinks, showers, and other facilities must be provided when non-flush toilets are installed. The Individual Residential Wastewater Treatment Systems Design Handbook gives more detail regarding composting toilets.115 The State Uniform Fire Prevention and Building Code [9NYCRR Subtitle S Sections 900.1(a) and (b)] requires wet plumbing (i.e., potable water plus sewerage) for all new residences. In accordance with Section 900.2(b), minimal required plumbing fixtures may be omitted for owner occupied single family dwellings if approved by the authority having jurisdiction. Health Department approval for said omission(s) shall be fully protective of public health and be in general harmony with the intent of Section 900.1 (i.e., provide satisfactory sanitary facilities). In some areas of the state where available water becomes insufficient to economically use flush toilets (i.e., even those with only 1.6 gallons per flush) or where a need or desire exists to conserve water, use of non-waterborne systems may be justified.116 Composters: These units accept human waste into a chamber where composting of the waste occurs.117 Composters accept only toilet wastes and kitchen food scraps coupled with supplemental additions of carbon-rich bulking agents such as planar shavings or coarse sawdust. Household cleaning products should not be placed in the unit. Failure to add adequate bulking agents or maintain aerobic moisture can result in the pile becoming hard (and difficult to remove) or anaerobic. The composted humus contains numerous bacteria and may also contain viruses and cysts. Residual wastes (i.e., the composted humus) should be periodically removed by a professional seepage hauler. If a homeowner chooses to personally remove the composted humus, it should be disposed of at a sanitary landfill or buried and well mixed into soil distant from food crops, water supply sources and watercourses. The humus comprises an admixture of recent additions and composted older additions and should be disposed of accordingly. Humus disposal sites shall meet Table 2 separation distances for sanitary privy pits.118 These units shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. The units shall have a label indicating compliance with the requirements of NSF Standard 41 or equivalent. Only units with a warranty of five years or more shall be installed.

North Carolina:

Department of Environmental Health and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Health, On-Site Wastewater Section, PO Box 27687, Raleigh, NC 27611-7687; Ph. (919) 733-2895 or 7015.

REGULATION(S): Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems, Section .1900 (April 1993).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Section.1934. The rules contained in this Section shall govern the treatment and disposal of domestic type sewage from septic tank systems, privies, incinerating toilets, mechanical toilets, composting toilets, recycling toilets, or other such systems serving single or multiple family residences, places of business, or places of public assembly, the effluent from which is designed not to discharge to the land surface or surface waters. Section.1958 (a) Where an approved privy, an approved septic tank system, or a connection to an approved public or community sewage system is impossible or impractical, this Section shall not prohibit the state or local health department from permitting approved non-ground absorption treatment systems utilizing heat or other approved means for reducing the toilet contents to inert or stabilized residue or to an otherwise harmless condition, rendering such contents noninfectious or non contaminating. Alternative systems shall be designed to comply with the purposes and intent of this Section. (c) Incinerating, composting, vault privies, and mechanical toilets shall be approved by the state agency or local health department only when all of the sewage will receive adequate treatment and disposal.

North Dakota:

North Dakota Department of Health, Environmental Health Section, Division of Municipal Facilities, 1200 Missouri Avenue, Bismarck, ND 58504-5264; Ph. (701) 328-5211 or 5150; FAX (701) 328-5200; Contact: Jeff Hauge, P.E, Environmental Engineer.

REGULATION(S): Chapter 62-03-16. Individual Sewage Treatment Systems for Homes and Other Establishments Where Public Sewage Systems are not Available (1996).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Ohio:

Bureau of Local Services, Ohio Department of Health, 246 North High Street, Columbus, OH 43266-0588; Ph. (614) 466-5190 or 1390; Contact: Tom Grimsby, Program Specialist; Email: [email protected]

REGULATION(S): O.A.C. Chapter 3701-29 Household Sewage Disposal Rules (1977).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Oklahoma:

Department of Environmental Quality, 1000 Northeast 10th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73177-1212; Ph. (405) 271-7363 or 702-8100 (Division of Water Quality); Contact: Donnie Johnson.

REGULATION(S): Chapter 640. Individual and Small Public Sewage Disposal (1998).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Oregon:

Department of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division, 811 Southwest 6th Avenue, Portland, OR 97204-1390; Ph. (503) 229-6443; http://www.cbs.state.or.us (click on statute/rules and go to oar 918-770 (division 770); http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/447.html; http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/banners/rules.htm; Contact: Sherman Olson, Terry Swisher: Ph (503) 373-7488.

REGULATION(S): Oregon Administrative Rules, Chapter 918, Division 790, Composting Toilet Rules (1998); Oregon Revised Statutes 447.115 (1997); OAR Chapter 340, Divison 71 (1997).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: As used in ORS 447.118 and 447.124, “compost toilet” means a permanent, sealed, water-impervious toilet receptacle screened from insects, used to receive and store only human wastes, urine and feces, toilet paper and biodegradable garbage, and ventilated to utilize aerobic composting for waste treatment. 447.118 (1) Nothing in ORS 447.010 to 447.160 shall prohibit the installation of a compost toilet for a dwelling by the occupant of the dwelling if the compost toilet complies with the minimum requirements established under this section. (2) Rules adopted under ORS 447.020 shall provide minimum requirements for the design, construction, installation and maintenance of compost toilets. (3) The Director of the Department of Consumer and Business Services with the approval of the State Plumbing Board may require by rule that, in addition to any other requirements provided by law, any manufacturer or distributor of a compost toilet and any person other than the owner of the dwelling in which the compost toilet is to be installed who proposes to install a compost toilet file with the Department of Consumer and Business Services a satisfactory bond, irrevocable letter of credit issued by an insured institution as defined in ORS 706.008 or other security in an amount to be fixed by the department with approval of the board but not to exceed $5,000, conditioned that such bond, letter of credit or security shall be forfeited in whole or in part to the department for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of ORS 447.124 by failure of such manufacturer, distributor or person to comply with the rules adopted under this section. 447.124 The Department of Consumer and Business Services, with the assistance of the Health Division: (1) May conduct periodic inspections of any compost toilet; (2) Upon making a finding that a compost toilet is in violation of the rules adopted pursuant to ORS 447.118 (2), may issue an order requiring the owner of the dwelling served by the compost toilet to take action necessary to correct the violation; and (3) Upon making a finding that a compost toilet presents or threatens to present a public health hazard creating an emergency requiring immediate action to protect the public health, safety or welfare, may issue an order requiring the owner of the dwelling served by the compost toilet to take any action necessary to remove such hazard or threat thereof. If such owner fails to take the actions required by such order, the department shall take such action, itself or by contract with outside parties, as necessary to remove the hazard or threat thereof.129 More specific information regarding composting toilets is given under Chapter 918-718-0010. COMPOSTING TOILETS: 1) must be ventilated (electrical or mechanical); 2) shall have at least one cubic yard capacity for a one or two bedroom dwelling; 3) shall be limited to installation in areas where a gray water disposal system can be installed and used; 4) shall be installed in an insulated area to keep a biological balance of the materials therein; and 5) humus from composting toilets may be used around ornamental shrubs, flowers, trees, or fruit trees and shall be buried under at least 12 inches of soil cover. Deposit of humus from any compost toilet around any edible vegetation or vegetable shall be prohibited.130 Composting toilets must be approved by the NSF Standard 41.131

Pennsylvania:

Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Water Quality Protection, Division of Wastewater Management, Rachel Carson State Office Building, 11th Floor, 400 Market Street, Harrisburg, PA 17101-2301; Ph. (717) 787-8184.

REGULATION(S): Title 25. Environmental Protection, Chapter 73. Standards for Sewage Disposal Facilities, Current through 28 Pa.B. 348 (17 January 1998).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: under Chapter 73.1 are defined as devices for holding and processing human and organic kitchen waste employing the process of biological degradation through the action of microorganisms to produce a stable, humus-like material.136 Composting toilets are permitted under Ch. 73.65. Toilets must bear the seal of the NSF indicating testing and approval by that agency under Standard No. 41. (b) The device utilized shall meet the installation specifications of the manufacturer and shall be operated and maintained in a manner that will preclude any potential pollution or health hazards. (c) When the installations of a recycling toilet, incinerating toilet or composting toilets is proposed for a new residence or establishment, an onto sewage system or other approved method of sewage disposal shall be provided for treatment of wastewater or excess liquid from the unit. For existing residences, where no alteration of the on lot system is proposed, a permit is not required to install a composting toilet.

Rhode Island:

Department of Environmental Management, Division of Groundwater and Individual Sewage Disposal Systems, ISDS Section, 291 Promenade Street, Providence, RI 02908-5767; Ph. (401) 277-4700; http://www.state.ri.us/dem/regs/water/isds9-98.pdf or .doc

REGULATION(S): Chapter 12-120-002, Individual Sewage Disposal Systems (September 1998).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Regulation 12-120-002, amended September 1998, governs composting toilet guidelines. SD 14.00 discusses the acceptability of composting, or humus, toilets, stating that a humus or incinerator type toilet may be approved for any use where a septic tank and leaching system can be installed. The regulation governs two types of COMPOSTING TOILETS: 1) large capacity composting toilets; and 2) heat assisted composting toilets. Large capacity toilets must have an interior volume greater than or equal to 64 cubic feet. All waste removed from large capacity composting toilets shall be disposed of by burial or other means approved by the director. Separate subsurface sewage disposal facilities must be provided for disposal of any liquid wastes from sinks, tubs, showers and laundry facilities (SD 14.05).

South Carolina:

Onsite Wastewater Management Branch, Division of Environmental Health, Department of Health and Environmental Control, 2600 Bull Street, Columbia, SC 29201; Ph. (803) 935-7945; FAX (803) 935-7825; Contact: Richard Hatfield; Email: [email protected]

REGULATION(S): Chapter 61-56, Individual Waste Disposal Systems (27 June 1986).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Composting toilets may be used in conjunction with an approved septic system, for facilities that are provided with water under pressure. If site and soil conditions are not acceptable for an approved septic system, an alternative toilet may be considered, but only if the facility is not connected to water under pressure.

South Dakota:

Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Air and Surface Water Program, Joe Foss Building, 523 East Capitol, Pierre, SD 57501; Ph. (605) 773-3151; http://www.state.sd.us/state/legis/lrc/rules/7453.htm

REGULATION(S): Chapter 74:53:01:10 (1 July 1996).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Unconventional systems are only to be used when water or electrical systems are unavailable. Vault privies, chemical toilets, incinerator toilets, or composting units shall be used when a water or electrical system is not available. With the exception of vault privies, all unconventional systems are considered experimental systems, and plans and specifications shall be submitted to the secretary for approval as an experimental system prior to installation.144

Tennessee:

Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Ground Water Protection, L & C Tower, 10th Floor, 401 Church Street, Nashville, TN 37243-1540; Ph. (615) 532-0774; Contact: Stephen Morse, Environmental Manager. REGULATION(S): Rules of Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Ground Water Protection, Chapter 1200-1-6: Regulations to Govern Subsurface Sewage Disposal Systems (1997).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: (2) Composting toilets must be certified by the NSF to be in compliance with NSF Standard 41, and be published in their Listing of Certified Wastewater Recycle/Reuse and Water Conservation Devices before they may be used for disposal of human excreta by non-water carriage methods. (c) A pit privy or composting toilet shall not be permitted for a facility where the facility has running water available unless there is an acceptable means to dispose of wastewater.146 GRAY WATER, CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS: No existing regulations. However, the Tennessee Valley Authority does publish a set of guidelines for the design and construction of constructed wetlands: Tennessee Valley Authority’s General Design, Construction, and Operation Guidelines - Constructed Wetlands Wastewater Treatment Systems for Small Users Including Individual Residences, Second Edition, by Steiner, et al., 1993.

Texas:

Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, PO Box 13087, Austin, TX 78711-3087; Ph. (512) 239-4775; http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us

REGULATION(S): Chapter 285: On-Site Sewage Facilities (1999).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: 285.2 (13) Composting toilet - A self-contained treatment and disposal facility constructed to decompose non-waterborne human wastes through bacterial action facilitated by aeration. 285.34 Other Requirements (e) Composting toilets will be approved by the executive director provided the system has been tested and certified under NSF Standard 41 147 285.2

Utah:

Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, 288 North 1460 West, PO Box 144870, Salt Lake City, UT 84114-4870; Ph. (801) 538-6146; http://www.eq.state.ut.us/eqwq/wqrules.htm

REGULATION(S): If they existed, they may be covered under R317-502-3, Individual Wastewater Disposal Systems (1993).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Vermont:

Agency of Natural Resources, Department of Environmental Conservation, Wastewater Management Division,103 South Main Street, The Sewing Building, Waterbury, VT 05671-0401; Ph. (802) 241-3834; Contact: Bonnie J. Loomer-Hostelter; Email: [email protected]

REGULATION(S): If they existed, they would most likely be found under Environmental Protection Rules, Chapter 1, Small Scale Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Rules (8 August 1996).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: No existing regulations.

Virginia:

State of Virginia, Division of Onsite Sewage and Water Services, 109 Governor St., Richmond, VA 23219; Ph.(804) 864-7452; http://www.vdh.state.va.us/onsite/gmp.asp; Contact: Donald Alexander; Email: [email protected]

REGULATION(S): 12 VAC 5-610-980.

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Article 6. 12 VAC 5-610-970. 3. Composting toilets are devices which incorporate an incline plane, baffles, or other suitable devices onto which human excreta is deposited for the purpose of allowing aerobic decomposition of the excreta. The decomposing material is allowed to accumulate to form a humus type material. These units serve as both toilet and disposal devices. Composting toilets are located interior to a dwelling. All materials removed from a composting privy shall be buried. Compost material shall not be placed in vegetable gardens or on the ground surface. All composting toilets must be certified by the National Sanitation Foundation as meeting the current Standard 41.

Washington:

Department of Health, Community Environmental Health Programs LD-11, Building 2, Airdustrial Center, PO Box 47826, Olympia, WA 47826; Ph. (360) 236-4501 or 3011 (Environmental Health Programs direct line); http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/ts/pubs-ww.htm; Contact: Jen Haywood.

REGULATION(S): WAC 246-272; Technical Review Committee, Guidelines for Composting Toilets (1994); Recommended Standards and Guidance for Water Conserving On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems (1999).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: I. The Technical Review Committee for On-Site Sewage Disposal, established under WAC 246-272-040, has reviewed the available literature on composting toilets. The committee has determined that composting toilets could be an approved method of sewage treatment if use is consistent with the guidelines herein. Composting toilets are not designed to handle the total wastewater volume generated in the home. The units are usually designed to accommodate fecal and urinary wastes together with small amounts of organic kitchen wastes. The remaining wastewater originating from bathing facilities, sinks and washing machines (gray water) must therefore be collected, treated and disposed of in an approved manner. Because there generally will be additional wastewater to dispose of, composting toilets are restricted. II. Composting toilets are any device designed to store and compost by aerobic bacterial digestion human urine and feces which are non-water carried, together with the necessary venting, piping, electrical and/or mechanical components.155 Section A. Waterless Toilets/WLTs. Composting - Unit designed to store and compost (by microbial digestion) human urine and feces. These units are commonly designed to accommodate fecal and urinary wastes together with small amounts of organic material to assist their function. No water is used for transport of urine or feces within these units. They may be small enough to sit on the floor of a bathroom or large enough to require space below the floor to house the storage/composting chamber.156 The units may be used to replace private privies or chemical toilets, including such applications as highway weigh stations, warehouses, port facilities, construction sites, residences, etc., may be used in dwellings where water supply is not available or provided (example: mountain cabins), or may be used in dwellings where an on-site sewage system is or can be provided for disposal of gray water. Where non-discharging blackwater treatment systems are used, a 50% reduction in septic tank volume and a 40% reduction in the daily hydraulic loading to be used in sizing the grey water disposal mechanism (djainfield, mound system, etc.) are recommended from standard design requirements. The units may be used in facilities where a public sewage system is provided for disposal of graywater.157 The devices shall be capable of accommodating full or part-time usage without accumulating excess liquids when operated at the design rated capacity. Continuous forced ventilations (e.g., electric fan or wind-driven turbulent) of the storage or treatment chamber must be provided to the outside.158 Components in which biological activity is intended to occur shall be insulated, heated, or otherwise protected from low temperature conditions, in order to maintain the stored wastes at temperatures conducive to aerobic biological decomposition: 20 to 50 degrees C (68 to 130 degrees F). The device shall be capable of maintaining wastes within a moisture range of 40 to 75%. The device shall be designed to prevent the deposition of inadequately treated wastes near parts used for the removal of stabilized end products. The solid end product (i.e., waste humus) shall be stabilized to meet NSF criteria when ready for removal at the clean out port.1. Performance Standards. 1.2.1.2. Toilets of proprietary design must be tested according to the NSF International Standard No. 41 (May 1983).159 The maintenance of carbon-to-nitrogen ratios of approximately 20:1 are recommended. Consequently, additions of vegetable matter, wood chips, sawdust, etc., can be helpful. Removal of composted and liquid materials shall be done in a manner approved with the local health departments and as a minimum, shall comply with Guidelines for Sludge Disposal, Washington Department of Health, 1954. Persons finding it necessary to handle this material shall take adequate protective sanitation measures, and should wash their hands carefully with soap and hot water. Compost shall not be used directly on root crops or on low-growing vegetables, fruits or berries which are used for human consumption; however, this general restriction does not apply if stabilized compost is applied 12 months prior to planting. Where it can be shown that sludge will not come in direct contact with the food products, such as in orchards or where stabilized sludges are further treated for sterilization or pathogen reduction, less restrictive periods may be applicable. Performance monitoring shall be performed on composting toilets permitted under this guideline. Permits should include a statement indicating the permitter’s right of entry and/or right to inspect. The frequency of monitoring shall be: 1) Two years after installation; 2) Four years after installation; and 3) in response to a complaint or problem. Non-water carried sewage treatment units are presently acknowledged to be a method of sewage disposal under the Uniform Plumbing Code, but variances to use the devices might be required by local administrative authorities. Variances must therefore be obtained from these departments together with approval of the local health department before the installation can be allowed. The Revised Code of Washington (RCW) 70.118 gives local boards of health the authority to waive applicable sections of local building/plumbing codes when they might prohibit the use of an alternative method for correcting a failure.

West Virginia:

Secretary of State, Administrative Law Division, State Capitol, 1900 Kanawha Boulevard East, Building 1, Suite 157K, Charleston, WV 25305-0770; Ph. (304) 558-6000; FAX (304) 558-0900; http://www.wvsos.com; Email: [email protected]; Contact: Leah Powell.

REGULATION(S): Title 64, Interpretive Rules Board of Health, Series 47, Sewage Treatment and Collection System Design Standards (1983).

COMPOSTING TOILETS: Interpretive Rule 16-1, Series VII, 10.1. Composting toilets may be utilized only in conjunction with an approved gray water treatment and disposal system. 10.2 The design and construction of a composting toilet must meet the requirements of NSF Standard 41.

Wisconsin:

Department of Commerce, Bureau of Program Management, 715 Post Road, Stevens Point, WI 54481-6456; Ph. (715) 345-5334; FAX (715) 345-5269; http://www.legis.state.wi.us/rsb/code/comm/comm083.pdf; Contact: Jim Klass, Ph. (608) 266-9292 (Water Regulation).

REGULATION(S): If they existed, they may be found in Wisconsin Comm083.

COMPOSTING TOILETS:** No existing regulations.

Wyoming:

Department of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division, Herschel Building, 122 West 25th Street, Cheyenne, WY 82002; Ph. (307) 777-7075; http://deq.state.wy.us/wqd/; Contact: John Wagner; [email protected]

REGULATION(S):** If they existed, regulations would most likely be found in Chapter XI, Part D, Septic Tank and/or Soil Absorption System, Water Quality Rules and Regulations in the Innovative and Alternative section.

COMPOSTING TOILETS:** No existing regulations.